Gradual loss of vision
The pupil of eyes turns grey
The patient has hazy view of distant objects
Frequent change of glasses without any apparent cause
VISION DETERIORATION IN CATARACT PATIENTS
TYPES OF CATARACT SURGERIES
10-12 mm Normal Incision
5-7 mm small Incision
2-3mm Phaco Incision
The clouded or opaque lens can be removed by a short surgical procedure . A synthetic Intra-occular lens (IOL) can be inserted in its place and vision can be restored. The goverment through the National Blindness Control Programme offers free cataract / IOL surgeries in Government hospitals and in recogonized Non governmental institutions. Here its worth mentioning campaign Sight First II & Lions involvement in eradication of `Curable` blindness.
Signs and Symptoms
Vision of coloured halos around the source of light or object seen
Pain in the eye, accompanied by frequent headache
Gradual loss of side vision and restriction of field of vision
Frequent change of power necessitating change of spectacles very often
Difficulty to read or write or do anything in dull light. Comfortable only with Bright-light.
Regular check-up and medication on the advice of an Eye-Specilist is a must for those affllicted by Glaucoma. Surgery may be required in certain cases but even then medication too must follow.
GLAUCOMA runs in families. So, if family history of glaucoma persists, all the blood related members of the family should undergo a thorough glaucoma examination with a duely qualified ophthalmic surgeon. So, it is always safe to check eyes after 32 years for Intra Ocular Pressure (IOP) with a qualified ophthalmic surgeon. Glaucoma is one disease where vision lost can never be regained. Only further loss of vision can be prevented after diagnosis...
Refractive errors are the problems in focusing objects,either near or far-off distances. This is due to the abnormal size and curvature of the eye ball . This is quite a common problem.
TYPES OF REFRACTIVE ERRORS
1.Myopia or near-sightedness:
Persons of Myopia have a blurred distant vision.
Complaint of Hazy vision
Complaint of headache, while doing near vison work
Constant blinking of eyes as an effort to view the blackboard
Chillden viewing the T.V . at close distances in small rooms
Children finding difficulty to see blackboard and thus dull in studies
Persons with Hypermetropia have difficulty in seeing both the distant and near objects. The condition can be overcome wearning convex lenses (Plus Power).
In a person with such a defect , a blurred distorted image falls on the retina at different angles. It results in strain for the person in viewing objects. This defect can be corrected by wearing cylindrical lenses, with axis of required degrees.
Generally after the age of 40, a person may find it difficult to see near objects clearly. This is because the elasticity of the lens gradually decreases due to the age. Spectacles of requisite power can correct this defect . Bi-focal glasses with distance vision and near vision may be necessary in many cases.
There are different types of bifocal lenses like kryptok, `D Base glasses and the transitional progressive glasses which almost guarantees 100% vision without distortion.
The transparent tissue covering the front of the eye is called the cornea. Vision will be greatly affected or lost if the cornea becomes cloudy.
The cornea could be affected due to :
Burns, corrosion due to acid / alkali burns
Post operative complication or infection
Signs and symptoms
Watery eyes or mucous / purulent discharge from the eye.
Blurred and hazy vision .
Redness in the eyes .
Severe pain in the eyes.
Eye should be guarded properly against injuries .Sharp objects must be kept away from reach of children .
Any foreign body fall (any dust or any other particle ) in the eye should be removed immediately , if necessary with medical intervention also. If not , it may prove very dangerous to the cornea , if left in the eye itself.
Supplementary dose of vitamin A should be provided to children below 6 years of age .
Avoid self - Medication. Eye drops of different purposes are available nowadays with contrasting effects.
Medication given for one’s eye may prove detremental to the ailment of another person.
Prompt and effective treatment can prevent corneal blindness in most cases . People with corneal blindness can regain their vision by corneal grafting. Corneal tissue is obtained from a person after death , which is usually called “eye donation” Eye banks harvest the 'cornea' , store them & transplant to patients who have lost their sight due to corneal damage.
COMPUTER VISION SYNDROME (CVS)
With advancement in information technology, many white - collar jobs involve spending long hours with computers. Though the computer screens are not known to emit harmful rays under normal operating conditions , long viewing can cause dry eyes , eye strain , Irritation , headache and backache and muscle-spasms. Frequent short rests to eyes in between work and change in seating arrangements can relieve these problems.
Every 20 min look at a distance of 20 feet for 20 seconds.
Computer users should keep their screen at a distance.
Place the monitor below the eye level.
The reference material sholud be kept close to the screen as to minimize head and eye movements.
Proper illumination to minimize reflection and glare.
Frequently blinding of eyes with palm will lubricate the eyes and prevent them from drying.
Take off the eyes from the comp.Screen and look at some distant objects for a few seconds once in a few minutes (20-20-20 procedure)
Wearing ARC glasses & application of LUBRICANT EYE DROPS wil help preventing "Dry Eye" in Conmputer users.
Diabetes is a fast becoming major health problem in our country .
Diabetes , if not properly controlled , can affect many vital organs including the eye. Retina is vulnerable to high sugar level.
2 Types :
2. Proliferative Retinopathy should get treated at the pre-proliferative stage itself , so as to hope for some useful vision.
Signs and Symptoms
Intially , there is no visible sign or pain etc., but at a later stage, vision is blurred.
Seeing floaters (dark spots) or black lines is a remarkable symptom of DBR.
Regular check-up and medication to keep blood-sugar under control
Persons with diabetes should have their eyes periodically checked by an ophthalmologist and checking by an optometrist is not adequate to assess DBR.
The damage already caused is irreversible. However medical treatment for diabetes can help stop or delay progression of diabetic retinopathy.
Laser photo coagulation (Laser PHC) also delays the further progression or diabetic retinopathy.
It’s also called eye flu and also Madras eye. It usually affects a large number of people at the same time, particularly during in rainy months .
Usually both eyes are affected. After a couple of days of itching , the eyes become red , sticky and swollen. Normally the person recovers within a few days without any medication , in some form of conjuctivitis. Certain other types of conjuctivitis become very severe without medication.
It spreads from person to person .It spreads through fingers , and formites. Personal use items like handkerchief , bath towel , bed linens are the media through which this viral infection spreads , and is cured only after medication.
Clean personal hygienic habits can help a peson from not contacting the infection like :
Washing hand and face with clean water frequently.
Using separate towel, handkerchief , bed linen etc. for each person.
Avoiding touching of the eyes frequently.
Using sun-glasses & Avoid using other's glasses.
AVOID SELF-MEDICATION OF ANY SORT WITHOUT MEDICAL ADVICE.
DO NOT PUT GHEE / HONEY ,MOTHER'S MILK etc. INTO THE EYES.
WASH THE EYES FREQUENTLY WITH CLEAN COLD WATER.
CONSULT AN EYE DOCTOR & APPLY MEDICATIONS AS PER HIS ADVICE.
SQUINT OR CROSSED EYE
The two eyes are not aligned properly while viewing an object and thus eyes looks crossed or crooked. This is called squint eye.
Crossed eye defect should be checked and treated in the early childhood itself. The person with squint views an object with one eye only.
Hence he is deprived of the depth perception of the object. The binocular vision and coordination beween the two eyes are affected. The condition can be corrected only if detected early.
The chances of correcting squint is good , If detected in early childhood. In some cases , proper spectacles can bring the necessary correction.
Partial sight cannot be fully corrected by surgery or medication or glasses. The affected person finds it difficult to carry out even his every day activities.
Congenital and birth disorders like Rubella or Albinism or Nystagmus.
Injury to the eye or brain (stroke), which can lead to Hemianopia.
Retinal disorders like Retinitis Pigmentosa. (Night Blindness)
Age related Macular degeneration , juvenile macular degeneration , opticatrophy ,Amblyopia etc.
The management of low vision mainly involves 3 steps :
1. Proper evaluation.
2. Prescription of devices to overcome low vision.
Magnifying spectacles, hand and stand magnifiers for reading and writing.
Telescopic lens for distant vision.
Non-optical devices like special bright lamps and large print materials.
Living conditions made simple and easily approachable.
Importantly , people closely associated with low-vision patients must be compassionate as to make things easier for them.
COMMUNITY BLINDNESS REHABILITATION (CBR)
Community Blindness Rehabilitation(CBR) focusses on indentifying the totally Blind people and facilitating their Life-Style and also training them in vocational courses like spinning, weaving, paper –cover making , orchestra etc., and help them in making their own living by this Rehabilitation.
Nowadays CBR is forming a major par of any Comprehensive Eye Care System. People with low vision aid are also indentified and rehabilitated for the benefit of their future life.
GENERAL CARE OF YOUR EYES
Avoid general neglect of Eyes like, when something like acid, rust or any dust falls in the eye , wash the eyes immediately with clean cold water.
Any particle , remove with clean cotton bud and not with handkerchief etc.
If irritation persists , do not rub the eyes.
Consult an ophthalmologist immediately.
Do not apply whatever eye drops is available in the market.
There are number of cases landing up (and in some , irrecoverable loss of vision also occur) in serious eye problems due to the initial neglect of the eye problems.
As the pollution rate and type of pollution increases day by day , the variety of fungus or bacteria or even simple virus affecting the eye also increases.
FACTS ABOUT EYE DONATION
FACTS ABOUT EYE DONATION
Anybody can donate Eyes.
Pleding the eyes before death is not a precondition.
Age , Sex are of no matter.
If the cause of death is Jaundice, AIDS , Cancer, Brain Fever or Syphilis the eyes cannot be donated.
Can be donated even if the deceased had Blood Pressure , Sugar , Cholesterol etc or had undergone any eye surgery also.
People wearing glasses or with other eye problems can also be eye donors.
Eyes should be removed within 6 hours after death.
Desire for donating eyes should be informed to nearest Eye bank within 4 hours.
Eye donation will be carried out at the house , hospital or nursing home whereever the body is lying.
Removal of the eyes will be done within 20 minutes.
There will be no bleeding or mutilation of the face after the removal.
The face of the deceased will appear serene , quite and unchanged after the Eye donation.
Eyes collected from one individual will be used for two different perspons.
There is no money involved in collecting or in utilizing donor eyes.
All details of Eye donations and usage will be kept confidential.
Youngsters should always motivate the elders around them for eye donation besides they themselves pledging their own eyes.The pledging of eyes for donation , done by older people is comparitively of immediate use than the pledging done by youngsters , considering their further age and longivity.
AFTER DEATH OF A PERSION-DO’S
1. Eyes should be kept closed.
2. Eyes must be covered wet cloth.
3. Two pillows be kept below the head.
4. Keep ice pieces on the forehead in a thin plastic bag.(If possible)
5. Keep changing Ice bits as they melt .